Thursday September 22nd 2016, Daily News Digest

Thursday September 22nd 2016, Daily News Digest

News Comments Today’s main news: Zopa’s securitization ; SoFi’s new life insurance product; New true lender decision in California. Today’s main analysis: 4 charts about emerging markets; Today’s thought-provoking : Ant Financial is worth more than Goldman Sachs. Are you paying attention yet ? ; Lemonade’s charity model to reduce fraud. United States SoFi is about to […]

Thursday September 22nd 2016, Daily News Digest

News Comments

United States

United Kingdom

New Zealand

Australia

China

News Summary

 

United States

SoFi Plans to Offer Life Insurance by End of Year, (Bloomberg Technology), Rated: AAA

The San Francisco company will soon start selling term life insurance to its base of mostly millennial customers, said people familiar with the matter. SoFi expects to roll out the product, which pays out a benefit if a customer dies during the period of time covered by the plan, before the end of the year or as soon as next month.

SoftBank Group Corp. led a $1 billion investment in the startup last year, valuing it at $4 billion, and it’s now seeking to sell an equity stake of about $500 million to help fund its rapid growth, people familiar with the matter said this month. Last year, the company issued $5 billion in loans and is on pace to double that this year, two of the people said.

SoFi could take a slice of the $159 billion in U.S. life insurance premium revenue generated last year, according to data from the National Association of Insurance Commissioners, a trade group.

People are more likely to purchase policies around certain life events, such as getting married, having children or buying a home, according to a study published last year by Deloitte LLP. SoFi may be well positioned to capitalize on that demographic thanks to its already sizable base of young customers.

Mike Cagney, SoFi’s chief executive officer, chairman, and co-founder, has said his goal is to eventually render banks obsolete.

New true lender case provides support for the bank partnership model, (Pepper Hamilton), Rated: AAA

On September 20, the U.S. District Court for the Central District of California dismissed a class action suit alleging illegally charged usurious interest rates on private student loans in violation of California law. Beechum v. Navient Solutions, Inc.

In doing so, the court rejected the plaintiff’s arguments that the defendants were the de facto “true lenders” of loans made by a national bank under a bank partnership with a non-bank partner.

The plaintiffs, in this case, obtained private student loans using loan applications that identified Stillwater National Bank and Trust Company, a national bank, as the “lender.”

The plaintiffs alleged that the “actual lenders” of the loans were the Student Loan Marketing Association (SLMA) or subsidiaries of the SML Corporation.

Under the agreement, SLMA would originate, underwrite, market and fund loans on which Stillwater would be identified as the lender and which SLMA would then purchase from Stillwater.

The court relied on two California appellate decisions in holding that courts “must look only at the face of a transaction when assessing whether it falls under a statutory exemption from the usury prohibition and not look to the intent of the parties.”

In looking “solely to the face of a transaction” in determining whether the subject loans were exempt from California’s usury prohibition, the court applied an objective standard that, unlike the highly subjective and fact-sensitive “true lender” line of reasoning, would result in consistent outcomes from one case to the next.

While this recent decision does not address the question of whether the claims were preempted by the National Bank Act, the case represents the latest “true lender” case, with a reasoned and measured approach to bank partnerships. In dismissing this case, the court rejected the idea of looking beyond the face of the transaction and into the intentions of the parties.

The Central District of California is the same court that, just three weeks prior, provided the decision in Consumer Financial Protection Bureau v. CashCall, Inc.Unlike the CashCall decision, the court did not use the “predominant economic interest” test for determining “true lender” status and acknowledged the negative effect on the secondary market of looking to the intentions of the parties instead of the transaction on its face.

Lendio and Supplier Success Partner to Improve Access to Capital for Minorities, (PR Web), Rated: A

Lendio, a marketplace for small business loans, today announced a partnership with Supplier Success, LLC, a Detroit-based company focused on providing working capital solutions, and on improving minority and women business owners’ access to capital.

Through this strategic partnership, Lendio and Supplier Success will provide minority and women business owners access to transparent lending rates and respectful business practices. Lendio recently reported facilitating more than $250 million in funding to more than 10,000 small businesses.

By joining forces with Supplier Success, we’re able to expand our capabilities to provide minority business owners easier access to financing,” said Brock Blake, CEO, and co-founder of Lendio.

P2P insurance startup Lemonade launches with charity pledge, (FinExtra), Rated: A

Lemonade raised $13 million in the biggest seed round of 2015 and, having secured a license as a full-stack insurance carrier by New York State, the firm is now inviting homeowners and renters to sign up online and through its app. Under the peer-to-peer model, Lemonade will ask customers to nominate a charity when they buy a policy.

Claims are paid out of these pools and any funds that are left at the end of the year go to the chosen charity. Policies start at $35 a month for homeowners and $5 for renters, with the entire process digitized, “replacing brokers and bureaucracy with bots and machine learning”. Lemonade takes a flat 20% fee and says that its model not only benefits charities but also customers and the company itself by reducing the incentive for fraud.

American Express Adds Its Bot to the Party, (Bank Innovation), Rated: A

When Facebook Messenger launched five (!) years ago this month, it was not immediately clear why or what it might do — messages already existed within Facebook, everyone was texting madly already, so why launch a whole new app?

A Forrester report in August warned banks off bots. Today’s bots are not ready for regulated industries that demand a certain level of user experience.

But the warning came too late — banks embraced bots, and a whole host of bots was wheeled out at Finovate. Perhaps most significantly, Kore (from the guys that brought you Kony) introduced its Smart Bot platform for banks to build their own bots. (In response to Kore’s demo a few fintech watchers at the show tweeted various versions of, “Uh oh.”)

DOL fiduciary rule to cost the securities industry $ 11 B by 2020: study, (Investment News), Rated: A

Implementing the Department of Labor’s new fiduciary rule for retirement accounts will cost the brokerage industry $11 billion in revenue over the next four years.

Hardest hit will be independent broker-dealers, who stand to lose $4 billion in revenue, or 22%, of the industry’s total, according to the study, which was released in August. IBDs are also expected to see a decline of $350 billion in client assets, or 11% of the industry’s total.

Personal Finance App MoneyLion Launches in Malaysia, (Business Wire), Rated: A

MoneyLion is headquartered in New York with offices in San Francisco and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

MoneyLion’s free mobile app will help Malaysian consumers gain a 360-degree view of their finances through a suite of analytics tools that track spending and saving activity across multiple bank accounts.

RealtyMogul.com Closes $ 8.2 Million in Multifamily and Retail Transactions, (Business Wire), Rated: A

Following last month’s launch of MogulREIT I, RealtyMogul.com’s first crowdfunded real estate investment trust, the company announced today that it had closed five transactions in markets across the country. Four of the five deals were equity investments into multifamily properties, while the fifth marked the commercial real estate platform’s largest 1031-qualified transaction to date.

4 charts on banks, mobile money and financial inclusion in emerging markets, (Tradestreaming), Rated: AAA

Africa has long been touted as the continent whose specific geographical challenges and the widespread poverty of many of its inhabitants have enabled it to skip over traditional banking infrastructures into the waiting arms of cost-efficient fintech solutions.

The statistics, for those who are rooting for a cashless, bankless Africa, are encouraging. The following charts, sourced from a recent report on financial inclusion in emerging markets published by the institute of international finance, demonstrate that the economy is Africa is starting to pick up, along with mobile phone ownership.

Mobile money accounts aren’t exactly threatening the banks, even in developing countries.

According to an analysis from the Global Findex, 2.2 billion, or 95 percent, of the total 2.3 billion adults in low- and middle-income countries with a financial account held the account at a financial institution in 2014.

Moreover, contrary to popular belief, financial incumbents are major drivers of economic inclusion in developing countries.

Banks have a number of reasons aside from profitability to expand their activities in emerging markets, such as CSR and investment. Whatever the cause, the way forward for banks in developing countries will probably start with cellphones, smart or otherwise.

United Kingdom

Zopa readies £ 138 m debut securitisation, receives Aa3 rating, (AltFi News), Rated: AAA

The first securitisation of loans issued by leading consumer lending platform Zopa – “Marketplace Originated Consumer Assets 2016-1 plc” (“Moca 2016-1”) – has been provisionally rated by Moody’s. The loans that make up the £138m portfolio were funded in the first instance by P2P Global Investments, the £870m investment trust.

Deutsche Bank was heavily involved in Funding Circle‘s inaugural securitisation and is now acting as the sole arranger and lead manager for the Zopa deal.

Moody’s has assigned a rating of (P)Aa3 to the £114m senior tranche of Class A Notes. The Class B Notes, of which there are £7.5m, were rated (P)A2. The £7.5m of Class C Notes were assigned a rating of (P)Baa2. The £9m of Class D notes were rated (P)Ba3. There are also £12m of Class Z Notes which will not be rated. All Notes are due October 2024. Target Servicing Limited has been appointed as the back-up servicer of the portfolio.

We now learn that Fitch has conferred a landmark rating on the Zopa deal. Fitch rated the Class A Notes “AA-(EXP)”. This is the highest rating to have ever been assigned to a marketplace lending transaction by Fitch. There has been over $10bn in global securitisation issuance by the marketplace lending sector to date. Fitch declined to rate Funding Circle‘s SBOLT 2016-1 earlier this year.

This will be the UK marketplace lending sector’s second securitisation to date. Funding Circle’s SBOLT 2016-1, a £130m transaction, received an Aa3 rating from Moody’s in April. The Class A Notes, which were sold to KfW, came with a guarantee from the European Investment Fund attached.

Moody’s assigns provisional ratings to Marketplace Lending ABS to be issued by Marketplace Originated Consumer Assets 2016-1, (Moody’s Investor Service), Rated: AAA

The securitised portfolio as of 31 August 2016 consists of unsecured consumer loans to UK private borrowers. According to the borrower but not verified by the platform provider these loans are mainly used to finance cars (36.2%), for debt consolidation (34.0%) and for home improvements (22.3%). The portfolio consists of 27,137 contracts with a weighted average seasoning of 10 months and a maximum loan term of five years. Most borrowers are employed full-time (89.9%) and their average outstanding loan balance with Zopa is GBP 5,500.

According to Moody’s, the transaction benefits from: (i) a granular portfolio originated through the Zopa marketplace lending platform, (ii) a static structure that does not allow to buy additional receivables after closing, (iii) continuous portfolio amortization from day one, (iv) an independent cash manager and liquidity provided through two reserve funds, (v) an appointed back-up servicer at closing, and (vi) credit enhancement provided through subordination of the notes, reserve funds, and excess spread.

Moody’s notes that the transaction may be negatively impacted by: (i) misalignment of interest between the platform provider Zopa and investors who finance the loans, (ii) the fact that Zopa does not retain a direct economic interest in the securitized portfolio, (iii) the limited historical data that does not cover a full economic cycle, (iv) a higher fraud risk due to the online origination process, (v) an unrated servicer with limited financial strength, and (vi) the regulatory uncertainty due to the still developing regulation for the marketplace lending segment.

Moody’s determined the portfolio lifetime expected defaults of 7.0%, expected recoveries of 5% and Aaa portfolio credit enhancement (“PCE”) of 35.0% related to the loan portfolio. The expected defaults and recoveries capture our expectations of performance considering the current economic outlook, while the PCE captures the loss we expect the portfolio to suffer in the event of a severe recession scenario. Expected defaults and PCE are parameters used by Moody’s to calibrate its lognormal portfolio default distribution curve and to associate a probability with each potential future default scenario in the ABSROM cash flow model to rate Consumer ABS.

The principal methodology used in these ratings was “Moody’s Approach to Rating Consumer Loan-Backed ABS” published in September 2015. Please see the Ratings Methodologies page on www.moodys.com for a copy of this methodology.

In rating consumer loan ABS, default rate and recovery rate are two key inputs that determine the transaction cash flows in the cash flow model. Parameter sensitivities for this transaction have been tested in the following manner: Moody’s tested six scenarios derived from a combination of mean default rate: 7.0% (base case), 7.5% (base case + 0.5%), 8.0% (base case + 1.0%) and recovery rate: 5.0% (base case), 0% (base case – 5%).

Bar Chain BurningNight Group Secures Over £ 500,000 Within First Week on Crowdstacker, ( Crowdfund Insider), Rated: A

BurningNight Group, a city center bar chain, successfully raised over £500,000 within the first week of its crowdfunding campaign on UK’s peer-to-peer lending platform, Crowdstacker. The company is currently offering 7% p.a. interest to those investing in the £3.5 million raise.

According to Crowdstacker, approximately half the funds raised so far have been invested through the Innovative Finance ISA.

Lendinvest announces industry first auction finance partnership is now live, ( Property Reporter), Rated: A

Last month, the two firms announced their partnership as an industry first and will see LendInvest pre-qualify lots at LOT11 auctions which fall within the lender’s criteria.  Lendinvest, the world’s first online lending business for the property, has announced today that details of the properties it has pre-qualified ahead of the next LOT11 auction are now live.

The partnership begins with LOT11’s quarterly auction on 27 September.

NeEw Zealand

New Zealand’s top five P2P lending platforms, (SMN Weekly), Rated: A

HarmoneyCorp Ltd. (www.harmoney.co.nz) – Harmoney became the first FMA-licensed P2P lending platform in mid-2014. The platform has helped match borrowers and lenders for more than $307 million in loans.

Lending Crowd Ltd. (www.lendingcrowd.co.nz) – The platform can be used by either individuals or businesses. It was the fourth P2P lending platform to obtain a license in New Zealand.

Lendme Ltd. (www.lendme.co.nz) – LendMe, New Zealand’s second authorized P2P lender, got licensed in April 2015 and commenced operations just five months later.

Pledgeme Ltd. (www.pledgeme.co.nz) –PledgeMe is a platform that combines three different crowdfunding models in one place – project (aka reward), equity, and lending (aka P2P lending) crowdfunding.

Squirrel Money Ltd. (www.squirrelmoney.co.nz) – Squirrel Money is part of the Squirrel Group, which also provides mortgage brokerage services. The platform helps people borrow funds to finance everyday needs such as renovations or buying a car, or events such as marriage or starting a family. In August 2016, the platform launched New Zealand’s first P2P secondary market, which allows loans to be on-sold to other investors.

Australia

Fintech lender aims to break $ 200 m barrier, (Australian Broker), Rated: AAA

Marketplace lender SocietyOne believes 2016 will be a breakthrough year as it aims to push past $200m in lending.

According to the lender’s latest financial update, the first week of September saw it reach the $150m lending milestone, one year after it hit the $50m mark.

The lender has also announced a significant increase in its funding available for lending, up to $75m after sitting at $20 million on 30 June.

China

Jack Ma’s Finance Business May Be Worth More Than Goldman Sachs, (Bloomberg), Rated: AAA

Leung estimates that most of Ant Financial’s value is in Alipay, China’s most popular online payment service, with a projected worth of $50 billion. Its micro loans service is probably worth another $8 billion, while Ant’s wealth management unit is given a valuation of $7 billion. The rest of Ant Financial’s valuation comes from investments and cash on hand, outstripping Goldman’s roughly $70 billion market value as of Monday.

The company could grow to $100 billion in two years, as the current valuation doesn’t include growth brought in by insurance, credit scoring, and cloud computing, Leung said.

Ant Financial is considering an initial public offering in Hong Kong in the first half of next year, people familiar with the matter said last month.

China big P2P lenders shrug off crackdown, (Morgans), Rated: A

Regulators have unveiled a series of measures to head off signs of rising risks in its fast-growing P2P market, including borrowing limits and forcing P2P platforms to use third-party banks as custodians of investor funds. The regulator’s announcement knocked 22 per cent off the New York-listed shares of Chinese P2P lender Yirendai Ltd, while Chinese stocks fell to a two-week low, weighed by banking shares on concerns over the crackdown on riskier lending practices.

But many larger P2P companies including Lufax, Yirendai, PPDAI and Dianrong.com say they already comply with many of the new requirements, so could benefit from the restrictions.

The volume of P2P loans surged more than 20 times to 656.8 billion yuan ($US98.7 billion) at the end of July from just 30.9 billion yuan in January 2014, according to industry data provider Wangdaizhijia.

Nomura estimates that could reach 880 billion yuan by the end of 2016 and 1.5 trillion yuan by the end of 2018.

Several lenders already segregate investors’ funds into custodial accounts with banks to prevent fraud, while for companies like Lufax, a typical unsecured loan would be in the 100,000 yuan to 200,000 yuan range, below the government cap.

Author:

George Popescu

August 22nd 2016, Daily News Digest

August 22nd 2016, Daily News Digest

News Comments Today’s most interesting news are about banks and their paradoxical branches;  how real estate listings could come with financing included; how Bondora proves a 16.7% return to investors; China is putting in place P2P loans and individual caps ; last but not least the pros and cons of regulatory sandboxes. United States Goldman […]

August 22nd 2016, Daily News Digest

News Comments

United States

United Kingdom

  • 9-months-old online real estate auction house partners with LendInvest. “On the information page for each pre-qualified lot, summary funding details will be presented alongside other key property information.” Imagine if in the US when you go to an open house you can receive guidelines on what financial parameters will automatically qualify you for the house !

European Union

New Zealand

China

India

  • An article advocating for a regulatory sandbox for P2P lenders. For example, P2P lenders should receive the right to operate with “1,000 customers in one city, for three months”. This approach has worked tremendously well in China since the 1980s where the government provided capitalistic sandboxes in Shanghai and Shenzhen/Guangzhou at first. Then the government re-used this sandbox idea for any new initiative. A proven approach at a Chinese scale. If it worked in China perhaps it will work elsewhere.

 

United States

Meet Marcus, Goldman Sachs’s Online Lender for the Masses, (New York Times), Rated: AAA

After much internal discussion, the Wall Street firm has decided to call the retail banking operation Marcus — the first name of the company’s founder, Marcus Goldman.

Marcus is expected to be officially unveiled when the bank is ready to roll out the offering, most likely in October, according to people who were briefed on the plans.

Initially, Marcus will offer relatively small consumer loans, a business that Goldman has traditionally avoided.

One potential benefit of the retail banking operation is that it could help temper the reputational problems that Goldman suffered after the financial crisis, when Rolling Stone magazine called it “a great vampire squid wrapped around the face of humanity.”

The big question is whether Goldman will learn to successfully serve retail customers, something it has not done.

The Marcus business was referred to internally as Mosaic and has been operating with a staff of around 100 people.

Greater Scrutiny Looms for ‘Rent-a-Charter’ Deals, (Wall Street Journal), Rated: AAA

The startups’ regulatory advantage may be fleeting. Last month, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. proposed guidelines, including one that banks that partner with third-party firms to make loans “will generally receive increased supervisory attention.”

Though the FDIC has had guidelines for relationships between banks and outside vendors, the new proposal focuses specifically on lending partners, including proposing yearly examinations rather than every 18 months. It also recommends that banks should set “performance standards for third parties” and “require access to data.”

Fewer than 50 U.S. banks work closely with online lenders, estimates Brian Korn, a partner at Manatt, Phelps & Phillips LLP. “The FDIC wants to make sure these banks are doing their homework and aren’t just puppets,” he said. He added that in his experience such banks were “very focused on safety and soundness, even more so than other banks of their size.”

Among the most active banks working with online lenders are WebBank, a unit of conglomerate Steel Partners Holdings LP, and Cross River Bank in New Jersey.

The banks declined to comment on the FDIC guidelines. The FDIC is seeking comment on the proposal.

Some experts argue rent-a-charter arrangements reduce risk. Taxpayers aren’t in danger of being on the hook if a loan fails, while borrowers are given wider access to credit even if banks don’t want to take risks.

Online lenders that partner with banks, such as Elevate Credit Inc., have already been subject to some FDIC examinations, according to its chief executive, Ken Rees, because under a decadesold law, a bank’s primary federal regulator has the authority to examine certain service providers and vendors.

Meanwhile, court decisions in Maryland and West Virginia over the past two years defended state regulatory actions to stop an online lender from making loans at interest rates higher than the states permit, though the lender was working with a partner bank.

In July, Colorado authorities sent letters to Avant and Marlette Funding LLC saying state law would apply to loans made by them, although banks originated the loans, according to reports by Kroll Bond Rating Agency Inc. Avant and Marlette subsequently removed certain loans made to Colorado borrowers from bond offerings , Kroll added.

A revised Connecticut law that took effect in July requires companies that sell leads to lenders for people who want small loans, even if they don’t ultimately originate them, to obtain licenses as lenders.

Peer IQ analyzes Loan Purchase Agreements, (PeerIQ Email), Rated: AAA

Prosper announced Source: PeerIQ

Anatomy of a Loan Purchase Agreement
Purchasing raw whole loans involves substantial legal and administrative investment.  Originating platforms (“Sellers”) and whole loan investors (“Buyers”) enter into multiple negotiated contracts to purchase loans. These include the Loan Purchase Agreement, Loan Servicing Agreement, Loan Representation and Indemnity Agreement.
An LPA sets forth the economic terms, obligations, and representations for both the seller and buyer of loans. A

Developing a global financial architecture, (Tech Crunch), Rated: AAA

In their Insights article A World Awash in Money, Bain & Company define trust architecture as strong property rights protections, reliable legal systems and institutional depth. What this really boils down to is safety and transparency: People want to see that the money they send across borders is going where it is supposed to. Though the examples Bain uses detail larger foreign direct investments, these architecture problems persist even at the peer-to-peer level.

So what obstacles does technology need to overcome to create a reliable infrastructure to move money to emerging economies?

In his insightful article, When Bitcoin Grows Up, British journalist John Lanchester dives into why, historically, banks came about in the first place. When we spend money or get paid or give a loan, what we’re really doing is making an entry on a register. That entry says “this thing of value is being transferred.” Before the invention of common currencies, people would barter goods directly, or keep informal “IOUs” to log debts. The creation of banks allowed people to log their transactions in a centralized, authoritative ledger — the banker’s.

Though it’s difficult to paint heterogeneous markets in such broad strokes, the trend is clear — poorer people have less access to banks. This makes it hard to store and transact money.

One solution, which Lanchester evaluates thoroughly, is that of digital currencies based on technology such as blockchain.

Another problem for the developing world is the failure of many countries’ trust architecture to provide reliable personal identification and credit underwriting.

To solve this problem, the Indian government has famously rolled out an initiative to give a digital identity to its 1 billion+ residents using biometric identification. Now, following its critical success, Russia, Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia are all exploring similar programs.

Another novel approach to creating credit files comes from Kenya, home to the wildly successful Safaricom startup M-Pesa. In 2013, 43 percent of Kenya’s GDP flowed through M-Pesa. The tech is built on a radically simple idea: If you have access to someone’s cell phone account, you have a way to identify them individually and a history of payments to tell if they’re creditworthy.

Innovative technology firms, well-versed in the challenges of the developing world’s financial trust architecture, stand to revolutionize the way money is sent and lent globally. These solutions could also “trickle up” from the personal level to larger-scale investments, as transfer risks are smoothed across geographies. The inertial build-up of capital pools in the developed world creates an almost limitless opportunity for those platforms that can overcome the hurdles damming it.

U.S. banks want to cut branches, but customers keep coming, (Reuters), Rated: AAA

Despite banks’ nudging toward online tools, many U.S. customers are not ready to give up regular visits to their nearest branch, complicating the industry’s efforts to slim down.

U.S. banks have trimmed the number of branches by 6 percent since it peaked in 2009, according to Federal Deposit Insurance Corp data. The 93,283 branches open at the end of last year was the lowest level in a decade.

Yet analysts who have examined the data say banks should have done more to offset the pressure on revenue from low interest rates and regulatory demands.

The number of FDIC-insured banks has fallen by more than 25 percent over that time.

Bankers across the industry say that online banking complements traditional services for U.S. customers, but few have gone fully digital. While other factors are at play, one difference is that U.S. customers still routinely use checks and need branches to process them, said Rick Spitler, managing director at consulting firm Novantas.

The traditional branch costs roughly $2-4 million to set up and $200,000-400,000 per year to operate, according to Ed O’Brien, an analyst at Mercator Advisory Group.

Executives at JPMorgan Chase & Co JPM.N, the country’s largest bank, say each branch earns about $1 million in annual profit, but takes a decade to reach its full potential.

John Elmore, vice chairman of community banking and branch delivery at U.S. Bancorp, says branches are especially important for small businesses that need to deposit cash frequently, prefer to negotiate loans in person, or want strategic advice.

They have reduced the number of tellers and moved them to the back. Their ATMs can perform more sophisticated tasks and banks have developed nifty mobile apps for routine banking needs. They are even experimenting with digital loan underwriting.

Yet customers still expect contact with bank staff and JPMorgan recently had to hire more tellers after customer complaints.

Bank of America Corp BAC.N, which has closed a quarter of its branches since 2009, could eventually serve as a test case.

 

Kickfurther Buyers Crowdfinance $ 10.2 Million of Inventory, (PR Web), Rated: A

Kickfurther Consignments are not loans. Buyers provide inventory, marketing, and sales support for businesses, and they earn Co-Op profits when Consignment Inventory sells. In this way, the interests of the businesses are directly aligned with the interests of their Buyers.

Kickfurther is an inventory crowd­funding marketplace that connects companies with individuals. The Kickfurther marketplace enables consumer product companies seeking capital to grow by sharing sales opportunities with individuals interested in participating in micro-retail.

Businesses post Consignment Opportunities by choosing the amount of inventory they want, the consignment profit Buyers will earn as inventory is sold, and the estimated duration of time it will take to sell the inventory based on prior sales history. Since its 2015 launch, Kickfurther has funded $10.2 million of inventory in 339 Consignment Opportunities by 288 product companies. Kickfurther users have earned, on average, more than 2% consignment profit per month on completed Co-Ops.

OnDeck Soars to #16 on Selling Power’s “50 Best Companies to Sell For” List, (PR Newswire), Rated: A

OnDeck® today announced it has been named to the Selling Power 50 Best Companies to Sell For list for the fourth consecutive year, rising to #16 on the list, ahead of sales giants ADP (#18), Google and Microsoft (tied at #37) and IBM (#50).

“OnDeck’s top twenty ranking on the Selling Power 50 Best Companies to Sell For list is a clear indication of our relentless commitment to fostering a top-notch workplace environment where employees feel both supported and challenged,” says Paul Rosen, Chief Sales Officer at OnDeck.

OnDeck’s robust compensation packages include medical, dental, vision and life benefits, up to four months of paid parental leave, lunch on OnDeck plus a fully-stocked kitchen, 401(k) matches, compensation for education, student loan refinancing and more.

Nova Credit launching from Y Combinator to give immigrants access to U.S. credit, (Tech Crunch), Rated: A

For millions of immigrants (roughly 15 million) landing on U.S. shores — even ones who had successful jobs abroad — there’s no way to access credit.

Collecting credit information and credit proxies (like cell phone billing receipts and records) into a single report it calls the “Nova Credit Passport”, Nova Credit passes the report onto the lender so that they can make a more informed determination on whether to accept or reject a credit application.

Both the UN and the World Bank have identified financial inclusion and the ability to access global credit as one of the keys to development and poverty alleviation globally.

Nova makes its money by charging lenders for access to their reports, in the same way Experian and Equifax do.

So far, the company is concentrating on two markets, India and Mexico, which account for roughly 21 million immigrants to the U.S. every year. As the company expands it intends to add countries in the UK, the European Union, Brazil, Russia and China.

Launching at Y-Combinator’s demo day this weekend, Nova Credit is already generating buzz among financial services companies. It has also partnered with organizations immigrant organizations like fwd.us and Partnership For A New American Economy.

“We’re partnering with credit unions and fintech lenders,” said Goulimis. “Credit unions are committed to financial inclusion and trying to move away from taking shots in the dark [and] on the other hand we’ve been working with bigger fintech lenders [who] are trying to underwrite people who are unbanked.”

Message from Realty Mogul CEO, Jilliene Helman, (Email from Realty Mogul), Rated: A

What [Realty Mogul is] here for: to give more people on both sides of the marketplace (real estate companies and real estate investors) better access to real estate investing through innovation (in technology, products, regulations, or any other way).

Until now, RealtyMogul.com was only open to accredited investors. To date, over 80,000 people have expressed interest in what we do by joining our investor network, but only the 25,000 accredited investors within that group could invest through our platform.

So we did just that – starting this week, investing on RealtyMogul.com is finally available to nearly all investors*.

MogulREIT I Basics

Thanks to recent changes under The JOBS Act (more specifically, Title IV of the JOBS Act known as Regulation A+) we are now able to offer non-accredited investors the opportunity to invest in a diversified pool of commercial real estate investments through a single investment, MogulREIT I, a real estate investment trust (or “REIT”).

A “REIT” is a company that owns or finances real estate. REITs give their investors the opportunity to participate in large-scale real estate transactions by purchasing shares of the company that owns or finances them. REITs typically do not pay tax at the company level, and so they avoid the double-taxation problems that many corporations face.

Our first REIT, MogulREIT I, is a public non-traded REIT. That means that it is registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission, but is not traded on a stock exchange.

MogulREIT I investors can enjoy regular income, potential capital appreciation, and diversification across geographies, property types, and investment types.

We designed MogulREIT I to be accessible through our online platform, RealtyMogul.com. By offering it directly to investors instead of through other third-party distribution channels, we are able to eliminate the high expense loads that result from traditional, commission-based sales.

Investors in MogulREIT I will not be charged any sales commissions and the organization and offering expenses are anticipated to be approximately 3% of the target total raise of amount. Traditional non-traded REITs typically charge an average sales commission of 7% and organization and offering expenses of up to 15%**. That’s 400% more than what we charge.

Next FTC Fintech Forum to Discuss Crowdfunding, P2P Payments, (Crowdfund Insider), Rated: A

The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) recently announced their next Fintech Forum.  The next event will take place on October 26th at the FTC HQ in Washington, DC.

At the first Fintech forum, the FTC managed to bring together a respectable group of industry representatives. As we understand it, FTC staff is reaching out to potential panelists now.

The half-day forum will examine the various models of crowdfunding and peer-to-peer payments used by companies, the potential benefits to consumers, and possible consumer protection concerns. In addition, the forum will look at how the FTC Act and other existing consumer protection laws might apply to companies participating in these areas.

United Kingdom

Online auction house launches pioneering partnership with lender, (Estate Agent Today), Rated: A

LOT11, an online auction house, is teaming up with short-term lender LendInvest in the first alliance of its kind. On the information page for each pre-qualified lot, summary funding details will be presented alongside other key property information, such as floor plans and legal documents, reflecting the imperative of arranging auction finance in advance of a bid for prospective bidders.

LOT11, which is only nine months old, attracted participants from more than 120 countries to its most recent online auction.

European Union

Bondora Publishes Annual Report for 2015, (Crowdfund Insider), Rated: A

The reports can be found here.

Bondora, a European peer to peer lender based in Estonia, has been on a big push to bring greater clarity and transparency to their lending platform. The initiative is not a requirement but a strategic decision to drive investor confidence and utilization.

Earlier this month, Bondora published an audited annual report from last year. As a private company there is no mandated need to do this but Bondora has published it regardless.

Bondora raised equity in the amount of €4.5 million during 2015 and thus strengthened the balance sheet substantially.

Bondora may be a smaller platform but they have big ambitions.  The P2P lender claims some of the highest returns in the industry and hosts a secondary platform for investor liquidity.  The current annualized net return on investment stands at 16.7% and the highest grade loans are generating about 12 % today.  Most loans are small distributed across three countries: Estonia, Finland and Spain. Anyone may invest in Europe. US investors must be accredited.

New Zealand

P2P lender Squirrel Money is the first to launch secondary market for investors in NZ, (SMN Weekly), Rated: A

Peer-to-peer lender Squirrel Money announced on Thursday it is launching secondary market next week, which will allow loans to be on-sold to other investors. The Squirrel offer will be the first P2P secondary market available in New Zealand.

Squirrel Money expects that the launch of the secondary market will encourage more people to make long-term investments.

Keep in mind, however, that Investments being sold through the Secondary Market are subject to an administration fee of 1% (up to a maximum of $50) per investment sold.

Squirrel Money has so far lent $225,899 in loans. Earlier this year, the company raised $3,424,400 through its crowdfunding campaign on Snowball Effect – NZ’s leading equity crowdfunding platform.

China

P2P platforms face lending caps, (Global Times), Rated: AAA

Chinese authorities will roll out rules governing the country’s peer-to-peer (P2P) platforms, which are expected to set borrowing limits for the sector, a move experts said on Sunday highlights the regulatory emphasis on inclusive finance.

The China Banking Regulatory Commission (CBRC), together with several other departments, will set specific borrowing limits in the Interim Measures for the Administration of Business Activities of Online Lending Information Intermediaries, which are expected to be issued around February 2017, domestic news portal thepaper.cn reported on Saturday, citing anonymous sources close to the matter.

Specifically, the report said an individual would be able to borrow no more than 200,000 yuan ($30,211) from a single P2P platform and no more than 1 million yuan in total from various platforms.

As for companies or other organizations, the amount should not exceed 1 million yuan from one platform or 5 million yuan from several platforms.

According to a draft version the CBRC released in December 2015 for public comment, P2P platforms should focus on small-scale lending and, with adequate risk management capabilities, should keep close control of borrowers’ total balances from all P2P platforms.

“At present, some P2P platforms may see ‘big orders’ for money, lending tens or even hundreds of millions of yuan to some real estate enterprises or other capital-intensive sectors, instead of supporting individuals and small and micro-sized enterprises,” Luo told the Global Times on Sunday.

“They will need to adjust their business once the borrowing caps become official,” Luo said, noting that tighter controls are inevitable.

India

Creating space for financial services, ( LiveMint), Rated: A

It is widely acknowledged that financial inclusion, and financial services more broadly, are at an inflection point in India. The so-called JAM trinity (Jan Dhan-Aadhaar-Mobile) and recent regulatory innovations (like the introduction of differentiated banking licences) have set the stage for a transformation.

As Nandan Nilekani eloquently put it, India has reached its “WhatsApp moment” in financial services.

Notably, there is a chicken-and-egg problem of innovation. Regulators desire to fully understand the potential risks of new technologies and approaches before making a decision.

So, how does one overcome this chicken-and-egg problem? One big idea that is taking shape is that of a “regulatory sandbox”.

A sandbox is a mechanism through which the regulator permits realistic simulations and limited-scale experiments of financial innovations in controlled environments (often ‘relaxing’ some regulatory norms). It studies the results of these experiments, and then makes final regulatory decisions. The sandbox functions as a safe space to try out innovations, and understand their associated risks, before allowing full-scale roll-out.

Here’s where a sandbox approach could help—by permitting an experiment where P2P lending platforms can be given some regulatory leeway such as being allowed to access centralized credit score and KYC databases, and hold funds in centralized accounts. Such an experiment could be run as a pilot with a limited set of customers—for instance, 1,000 customers in one city, for three months. If the regulator is satisfied that there were no major regulatory issues, the regulatory leeway could be formalized into the regulations.

Author:

George Popescu

August 3rd 2016, Daily News Digest

August 3rd 2016, Daily News Digest

News Comments Today’s news are focused on the monthly volume data published below. In the UK we see the 1st crowdfunding platforms slowdown in five years. And in China, we learn that P2P platforms, apparently, need to have a very tough to get bank relationship to continue doing business in 18 months. International July 2016 […]

August 3rd 2016, Daily News Digest

News Comments

  • Today’s news are focused on the monthly volume data published below. In the UK we see the 1st crowdfunding platforms slowdown in five years. And in China, we learn that P2P platforms, apparently, need to have a very tough to get bank relationship to continue doing business in 18 months.

International

  • July 2016 volume numbers are in. We made a list of companies who stand out either for good growth or major decrease. Notice : we can not guarantee the accuracy of the volume numbers.

United States

United Kingdom

Australia

New Zealand

China

International

International P2P Lending Marketplaces – Loan Volumes July 2016, (P2P-Banking), Rated: AAA

P2P Banking publishes monthly volumes for p2p lenders.  Please note that the information is not guaranteed and P2P Banking has made relatively large mistakes in the past. Example: LendInvest in May 2016 was reported as a 80% decrease from April while as it was not the case.

For July 2016: Zopa leads ahead of Funding Circle and Ratesetter. Assetz Capital and Lendinvest achieved a big surge in volume. The total volume for the reported marketplaces adds up to 341 million Euro. I track the development of p2p lending volumes for many markets. Since I already have most of the data on file I can publish statistics on the monthly loan originations for selected p2p lending services.

Comments:

Negative stand out:

  • LandBay decreased 62% 
  • Folk2Folk 38% 
  • Kokos -90% 
  • ThinCats -37% 
  • Wellesley -33% 

Positive stand out:

  • Assetz Capital +460% , 13.9m EUR/month origination last month.
  • Funding Circle +1% vs same month last year.
  • LendInvest +14% vs last year’s month.
  • Mintos +523% vs last year’s month and last month volume of 6.9m EUR
  • MoneyThing +462% and last month volume of 3.6m EUR
  • Twino 7.2m EUR last month and huge growth

 

 

 

United States

National Charter May Be the Devil Marketplace Lenders Don’t Know, (Bloomberg BNA), Rated: A

For some online marketplace lenders, the devil they know might look better than the devil they don’t when it comes to proposals for federal bank regulators to issue national charters to financial technology companies.

The issue surfaced in March, when Amy Friend, senior counsel for the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC), said at a conference in Washington that the agency had fielded inquiries from fintech companies about obtaining a national charter tailored to their needs. Since then, the concept has come up repeatedly at industry conferences and elsewhere. At an OCC-sponsored event in Washington June 23, for example, Maryann Kennedy, deputy controller for large bank supervision, said the agency was forming a committee to examine the question.

A charter for a non-bank fintech company that provides financial services would be modeled to some degree on the charters the OCC issues to banks. A key feature of the bank charters that a marketplace lender potentially would value is “pre-emption:” A national charter would establish a single set of nationwide standards that a company would have to meet, overriding the necessity of complying with an array of state standards.

The danger in a national charter is that it would effectively represent the law of the land, with little or no room for maneuvering by the lenders.

Much of the testimony at the July 12 hearing involved a separate issue agitating marketplace lenders: whether federal regulators should continue to treat loans of $100,000 or less to small businesses — loans that make up the overwhelming majority of small-business borrowing — as business loans, or to treat them as consumer loans, which are subject to many more rules on disclosure and other factors.

The OCC has not disclosed what might be regulated by a national fintech charter, nor little else about its ongoing evaluation. The agency also has not said if it will decide to offer the charters, or when it might make that decision.

Negative interest rates creating increased anxiety, (Bloomberg), Rated: AAA

Sovereign bonds are supposed to be the safest investments in the world, but according to Bill Gross, one of the best-known investors in the world, sovereign bonds are now too risky:

[Begin quote]”Sovereign bond yields at record lows aren’t worth the risk and are therefore not top of my shopping list right now; it’s too risky. Low yields mean bonds are especially vulnerable because a small increase can bring a large decline in price.”[End quote]

This was supported by a release from Fitch Ratings:

[Begin quote]”This year’s dramatic fall in yields on bonds issued by investment grade sovereigns has again raised the risk that a sudden interest rate rise could impose large market losses on fixed-income investors around the world, Fitch Ratings says. A hypothetical rapid reversion of rates to 2011 levels for $37.7 trillion worth of investment-grade sovereign bonds could drive market losses of as much as $3.8 trillion, according to our analysis.”[End quote]

Most people look at the stock market, and think that everything is rosy, but there’s a lot going on that isn’t reflected in the stock market. In 2007, it was the collapse of the real estate bubble and, more importantly, the disastrous collapse of collateralized debt obligations (CDOs) backed by subprime mortgages. The disaster had already occurred before the stock market started falling.

Bloomberg columnist Lisa Abramowicz on TV on Wednesday commented on the warnings from Bill Gross and Fitch (my transcription):

[Begin quote]”There’s a high level of concern about how sustainable all of this is – when profits are declining, when you have growth slowing, when you have stimulus efforts that are not working and that are running out of steam — how long can this last? But at the same time, it’s very hard to see what could reverse it. The only thing that people possibly can point to is inflation, or if some country decides not to pay back their debt, or just forgive it, or come up with some kind of engineering that creates a technical problem.”[End quote]

According to Abramowitz’s contacts, the only thing that can stop the current plunge in bond yields is for some country to decide not to pay back their debt — essentially to declare sovereign bankruptcy. In other words, there’s a major financial crisis coming no matter what.

Medallion Financial Corp. Reports 2016 Second Quarter Results, (Business Wire), Rated: AAA

Medallion Bank anticipates entering into a new line of business developing relationships with marketplace lending platforms.

Consumer loans originated by Medallion Bank were stronger than expected. In June alone, nearly 2,500 loans were funded for over $45 million in volume
Medallion Bank’s six month’s earnings increased by 39%
Managed assets reached $1.760 billion, including $1.159 billion at Medallion Bank, both all-time highs

Man claims Marlette Funding LLC made harassing phone calls to collect alleged debt, (West Virginia Record), Rated: A

Jeffrey Warren filed a complaint on July 7 in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of West Virginia against Marlette Funding LLC alleging violation of the West Virginia Consumer Credit and Protection Act and the Telephone Consumer Protection Act and other counts.

The plaintiff requests a trial by jury and seeks compensation for all damages, costs of litigation, attorney’s fees and such other relief as the court shall deem just and proper. He is represented by Daniel Armstrong and Benjamin Sheridan of Klein & Sheridan LC in Hurricane.

Banks are rolling out personalized customer experiences, (Tradestreaming), Rated: A

Customer satisfaction with big banks has surpassed levels with midsize banks for the first time this year.
17 percent of large banks reported implementing contextual, personalized insights and solutions to consumers.

Considering the high cost, it isn’t surprising that big regional or national banks have the lead in this arena. 17 percent of big regional or national banks reported implementing contextual, personalized insights and solutions to consumers, compared to only six percent of community banks and 2 percent of credit unions, according to Digital Banking Report’s  The Power of Personalization in Banking. More than 50 percent of each category reported having a basic level of digital prowess with plans to increase future investments in digital.

There are some estimates of ROI on digitization of banking services. McKinsey identified several areas of digitization that drive more profitability than others. These areas include product back office automation, digitization of document management, automation of credit decisions, and big data analytics applied to sales campaigns.

What brokers lost by focusing so much on the desktop experience, ( TradeStreaming), Rated: A

Sticky products build engaged audiences.

That’s why Yahoo Finance continues to get a firehouse of traffic. For those of us who built our portfolios on the site ten or more years ago, that’s enough of a reason to go back. We’ve invested enough of our time and energy into the service that leaving it becomes difficult.

The thing is, as internet usage has shifted from desktop to mobile, so should trading volumes.

It isn’t enough for a broker to just recreate a web experience on mobile, either. Today’s users don’t want non-native apps. People want to feel that an app is trustworthy and vetted through the Apple Store. According to comScore, 87 percent of all time spent on mobile in the U.S. was spent in mobile apps.

United Kingdom

Brexit blamed for fall in crowdfunding deals, (FT), Rated: AAA

Crowdfunding platforms have experienced a slowdown in deal flow for the first time in five years, in a sign that “armchair investors” are taking a more cautious approach to alternative investments.
However, the number of investments offered online fell 17 per cent in the first half of 2016, compared with levels seen in the last half of 2015, according to research company Beauhurst. The fall follows 10 consecutive half years of growth in terms of the number of deals offered to investors.

Beauhurst’s head of research Pedro Madeira said the slowdown in crowdfunding was “particularly noteworthy”.

Beauhurst’s data also show that venture capital and private equity firms slowed investment into UK start-ups and high-growth companies in the same period.

Bruce Davis, spokesman for the UK Crowdfunding Association (UKCFA), the trade body of crowdfunding platforms, said the dip in deals offered was just “a pause”. The UKCFA said it was confident deal numbers would begin to grow again.

RateSetter to close 3-year market, (Alt Fi News), Rated: AAA

RateSetter says that demand for its 5 year product is the primary impetus behind the planned closure. The 3 year market has become less and less popular ever since the platform introduced its 5 year offering, and now accounts for less than 5 per cent of new investments. The company says that investors have voted “with their wallets” and that they clearly prefer to lend in the 5 year market. The 5 year market currently pays a rate of 5.7% per annum, with the 3 year sitting at 4.0%.

TISA launches P2P forum, (Mortgage Finance Gazette), Rated: A

The Tax Incentivised Savings Association (TISA), the trade association working with the retail financial services industry, has launched a peer-to-peer lending forum to enable those in the sector to develop policy recommendations for regulators and legislators, address operational challenges and determine best practice.

Initially the peer-to-peer forum will concentrate on four key areas:

-Building an effective dialogue with the FCA, HMRC and HM Treasury

-Developing standardised terminology, operational technology, data governance principles and best -practice

-Enhancing accessibility to the sector by improving the understanding of intermediaries, discretionary managers, consumers and related parties including PI insurers

-Identifying unintended regulatory and technical blockages – for example in relation to the inclusion of P2P within SIPPs – and proposing solutions

Fintech investor joins Fidelity’s venture push, (Financial News), Rated: A

A former fintech investor at Accel Partners, who was involved in high-profile investments in WorldRemit and Funding Circle, has joined the London-based proprietary investment arm of Fidelity International as it seeks to strengthen its European business.

GLI Finance Hires Two Senior Executives, (Crowdfund Insider), Rated: B

GLI Finance Limited (LSE:GLIF) has announced the hiring of two senior executives. Russell Harte has been appointed Chief Operating Officer and Steven Simpson has been selected as the Head of Group IT.

Harte is a Chartered Accountant with extensive general management experience. His recent roles have included being Finance Director of Liberty Holdings Limited, a JSE listed long-term insurer, where he played a key role in the turnaround of that business. Most recently he was CFO of Standard Bank Jersey Limited. Simpson is currently Head of IT at one of GLI’s subsidiaries Platform Black.  He has over 25 years of experience in the design, implementation and administration of secure and highly-available enterprise and web-based solutions for corporate customers across various sectors including finance and telecoms. Russell and Steven will join the senior management team. Russell will report to the Group CEO and Steven will report to Russell.

GLI has been going through a period of change as Whelan took over the Chief Executive role at the very beginning of 2016.

Australia

Disruptive partnership forms between two Australian platforms, (Alt Fi), Rated: A

ThinCats Australia has joined forces with DomaCom, a soon to list real estate equity investment platform.

The partnership will involve using ThinCats loans in order to gear properties on the DomaCom platform. This may be the first time that a peer-to-peer lending company and real estate equity investment platform have collaborated in this way.

The ThinCats partnership may also open up future investment opportunities for investors across the two platforms. Naoumidis said: “This also provides the 350 lenders on the ThinCats platform the opportunity to gain exposure to property assets and the ability to lend funds at an attractive interest rate with a lower risk profile.”

New Zealand

Profiling the typical ‘peer-to-peer’ investor, (Stuff), Rated: A

Investor Tom Enright was the first person to invest through LendMe, a peer-to-peer property lender.

He invested $542,000 by funding a fully-secured residential mortgage loan on an Auckland property, getting a 7.84 per cent return on his money.

There are four peer-to-peer businesses: LendMe  (direct secured property lending), Harmoney  (unsecured personal loans), Squirrel Money (diversified secured property lending), and Lending Crowd (focus on secured car lending). Harmoney is by far the biggest peer-to-peer lender with $275m of loans made.

Figures from Harmoney  show most peer-to-peer lenders are 50 or under, with 41 being the average age.

REASONS TO BE A PEER-TO-PEER INVESTOR

Harmoney says people invest in peer-to-peer because:

– They are looking for an investment that could offer regular repayments over time. This includes people trying to generate income to live off

– They are spreading risk by putting a percentage of their portfolios into consumer lending.

– They understand they are taking the risk of a loan defaulting, but believe the risk is manageable and the return fair.

– They enjoy the process of lending.

China

Failing Grade: Many Chinese P2P Lenders Do Not Meet Government Requirements, (Crowdfund Insider), Rated: A

According to ECNS, the majority of P2P platforms have not yet established a relationship with a bank as a fund depository agent. Even though 149 P2P sites had signed agreements with banks “few had materialized.” Overall only 48 P2P lenders or just 2% of these online lenders have qualified, according to  Shanghai Ying Can Investment consulting.  These 48 platforms were some of the largest platforms in the country. These same platforms are poised to benefit by the additional regulatory scrutiny as undercapitalized and poorly managed P2P lenders may leave the market.

Chinese regulators are allowing a transitional period of 18 months for P2P lenders to adopt the new requirements. It will be interesting to see what happens after that.

P2P Finance in China: Why Firms Need Better Risk Controls, (Knowledge @ Wharton, UPenn), Rated: AAA

Since 2015, many P2P platforms including Ezubao, the Dada Group, the Kuailu Group, the Zhongjin Group and others have been charged with illegal fundraising, involving tens of billions of yuan. This is not confined to China. In May, the U.S. Treasury Department released a report criticizing the peer-to-peer (P2P) lending business and recommended it be more tightly regulated.

According to the industry website WDZJ.com, China’s P2P online finance industry reached 2.036 trillion yuan (about $300 billion in transaction volumes) by the end of May 2016. It took seven years to reach its first trillion yuan and just seven months to reach the second trillion.

Take the Lending Club in the U.S., for example. It originally hoped to evaluate personal risk based on data extracted from Facebook, Twitter and other social platforms. That is in America, which has much more sophisticated credit investigation and personal data systems than in China. So you can imagine a large amount of P2P business based on personal credit in China will meet trouble in operation if there is no appropriate risk control system in place.

“There is one feature of the finance industry — the one that grows the fastest, will also collapse the fastest.”

Author:

George Popescu